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考研帮 > 英语 > 复习经验

句型大汇总,教你盘活长难句(下)

  摘要:上一篇给大家分享了长难句中的三种句型,今天把剩下的五种句型补齐。长难句困扰着千千万万的小伙伴,但是看完这两篇文章,你会发现,长难句一点也不难哦~

  1.插入句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  插入结构表示说话人的态度和看法,解释或者说明整个句子,去掉之后句子仍然完整。插入结构的成分可以是副词、形容词短语、介词短语、不定式短语、分词短语或者主谓结构。在这就不一一论述了。但值得注意的是插入语的翻译,有些插入语,尤其是位于句首的插入语,可保持原文中的词序。然而,在许多情况下,需要对英语原文句子的顺序作必要的调整,使译文符合汉语习惯。

  (2)真题举例

  The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: " We are aware of impact and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people".

  •重点词汇及短语:

  State 陈述,声明

  newly adv. 新近,最新

  revise v. 修订;复习

  charter n.章程,宪章

  impact n. ?#19981;?#21147;,冲击;巨大影响

  Danish Fashion Ethical Charter丹麦时装伦理章程

  句子成分分析: 本句的主干部分为The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states。

  后面为阐述的观点,也是一个独立的句子,在该部分里We are aware of impact为主干,后面为省略了that的定语从句,对先行词impact进行解释说明,并且该部分中especially on young people作为插入语,补充说明前面的body ideals,意思是“对时尚产业尤其对年轻人在理想体型方面有着重要的影响”。

  插入语大都是对一句话进行附加说明或解释,通常由一个词、一个短语或一个句子构成,常置于句首、句中或句末,一般用?#27721;?#25110;破折号与句子隔开。

  参考译文:新修订的《丹麦道德时尚宪章》明?#20998;?#20986;:“时尚产业对人们——尤其是年轻人,在对理想体型追求方面有着重要的影响,我们意识到自己的这种影响并将担负起相应的责任。”

  2.强调句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  强调主要有两?#20013;?#24335;:

  1)强调谓语

  Eg1 : I love you . —> I do love you . —> I did love you .

  Eg2 : Cell phone / Internet / computer brings us convenience .

  —> Cell phone / Internet / computer does bring us convenience .

  2) 强调句式:It is / was + 被强调成分 +that / who + 句子其他成分。

  步骤

  a. 先写出正确的简单句、并列句或复合句,明确单句的各个成分。

  b. 在被强调成分(除谓语和补语外)两边添加it is / was 和that / who, 其他成分不变,必要时调整顺序。

  强调句?#25945;?#24449;:去掉it is / was ... that / who结构,整个句子无冗余或成分残缺。

  Eg1 : My mother always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is my mother who / that always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is when I have difficulties in study that my mother always encourages me not to lose heart .

  (2)真题举例

  Thus , in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers , coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it .

  •重点词汇解析:couple with 与……相结合;maximize,v. 取……最大值、达到最大值

  (3)参考翻译:因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体消费者的需求与商人试图最大化其利润的欲望和个人想最大化其收入效用的欲望相结合,一起决定了什?#20174;?#35813;被制造,以及资源如何被用来制造它们。

  3.否定句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  1) 部分否定

  Not both of them are my brothers .

  Both of them are not my brothers .

  All is not gold that glitters .

  2) 双重否定

  双重否定分为三种:

  肯定型:There are no roses without thorns .

  强调型:I just can’t do nothing .

  委婉型:I can’t hardly read your hand writing .

  3)?#36127;?#21542;定

  She is barely right .

  I seldom got any sleep last night .

  Few people can understand why he did it .

  (2)真题举例

  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry .

  •重点词汇解析:methodology,n. 方法论;refer to 参考、涉及、指的是; branch,n. 分支 v. 分支、出现分歧

  (3)参考译文:所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史研究中各个具体领域使用?#38590;?#31350;手段,人们对此意见不一。

  4.省略句型结构

  (1)考点概述

  省略结构在考研英语中的考查主要体现在句子的理解层面,主要分为两类:一类是借助于其他词语的省略,如使用助动词代替前文出现过的动?#21097;?#20351;用代词代替提到过的名词;另一类直接省略,如略去上下文的重合部分,通常是主语(和/或)谓语。

  (2)要点精析

  省略结构的掌握要求是:

  1)快速识别句子省略的内容;

  2)补全句子省略的内容。常见的省略现象会出现在并列结构中、状语从句中、名词性从句中和定语从句中。

  a.并列结构中的省略

  在并列句中,后面的分句往往省略和上文重合的部分。

  例:I think you’ll win the race; indeed we all think so.

  我认为你一定会赢得这场比赛,事实上我们都这样想。(so=you’ll win the race)

  b.状语从句中的省略

  在when/while/if/asif/

  though(although)/as/

  until/whether等连词引导的状语从句中,若谓语是be,主语是it或与主句的主语相同?#20445;?#21017;通常连同be动词一起被省略。

  例:If (it is) necessary, we can give you another chance.

  如果必要的话,我们可以再给你一?#20301;?#20250;。

  c.名词性从句中的省略

  常见的是使用不定式在主动表达中省略动词的施动者,在被动表达中省略助动词、情态动词?#21462;?br />
  例:She will go to Beijing, but I don’t know how (she will go to Beijing).

  她将去?#26412;?#20294;?#20063;?#30693;道她怎么去。

  d.定语从句中的省略

  定语从句中也常使用不定式作为省略的手段;当用as引导非限制性定语从句?#20445;?#24120;省略系动词。

  例1:All tests require a potential candidate with whom (the tests) to compare DNA.

  所有的测试都需要一个潜在的对象,从而可以将DNA与其比较。

  例2:He gave the same answer as (he had given) before.

  他给出的答案和以前一样。

  (3)真题举例

  Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change,McNutt said:"The creation of the'statistics board'was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science's overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

  •重点词汇及短语:

  impel v. 促使,迫使【用法】impel sb to do sth迫使某人做……

  statistics board 统计板

  concern n. 忧虑,担心;重要的事情 concern about/over/with 对……关心

  application n. 申请书;应用;应用程序

  句子成分分析:本句的主干是...McNutt said...。分词短语Asked whether...the change作句子的状语。引号中的内容是said的宾语,其主干是The creation of the "statistics board" was motivated...and is part of...。句中的broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research解释说明concerns的内容。

  句中的to increase...we publish解释说明drive的内容,其中we publish是一个省略了that的定语从句,修饰research。作“是……还是……”解?#20445;瑆hether表示一种选择,其后可以跟介词短语或不定式短语。

  作“是否,会不会”解?#20445;瑆hether可用来引导名词性从句,即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。引导主语从句?#20445;?#21487;用it作形式主语。引导宾语从句时whether可与if换用。

  (4)参考译文

  当被问道是不是某些特殊的文件推动了这项变化?#20445;?#40614;克纳特回答说:“统计审稿编委会的设立源于对统计学和数据分析在科学研究中运用情况的普遍担忧,也是《科学》杂志为提升我们所发表?#38590;?#31350;的可复制性而做出的全面努力的一部分。”

  5.比较句型结构

  (1)理论常识

  比较结构:

  no/not ... other than

  the 比较级……,the 比较级……

  rather ... than ...

  more than / no more than

  less than / no less than

  more A than B / no more A than B

  less A than B / no less A than B

  nothing else than

  as much as

  not as ... as ...

  not so much ... as ...

  (2)真题举例

  They may teach very well , and more than earn their salaries , but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment . (2006,50)

  •重点词汇解析:reflection,n. 反射、?#20102;?involve,n. 涉及、包含

  (3)参考翻译

  他们可能擅长教书,而?#20063;?#20165;仅专注于赚钱,但是这些人大部分对涉及人类道德判断的问题很少或没有进行独立的思考。

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